None Additional Content Requirements: Guidance for the Development of California School Wellness Policies , developed in a collaborative effort between the Department of Education and other organizations, provides districts with suggestions and concrete recommendations for meeting Section requirements. The document also provides references and links to pertinent state laws and regulations concerning school nutrition, physical activity, and other wellness-related topics that should be addressed in any local wellness policy in the state. The Project works with state and local physical activity and nutrition leaders to conduct programs in communities throughout California. Amongst many resources, the Project has created school wellness policy tools , including Policy in Action: A White Paper on Health, Nutrition, and Physical Education produced by the Department of Education entitled, Healthy Children Ready to Learn , highlights the need for local wellness policies and outlines steps the Department is taking to accelerate their adoption and implementation, including collaborative efforts, promoting a coordinated school health approach, and supporting state legislation supporting wellness policies. School Meals Program Last Updated: Education Code stipulates that the only food that may be sold to a pupil during the school day at elementary school are full meals and individually sold portions of nuts, nut butters, seeds, eggs, cheese packaged for individual sale, fruit, vegetables that have not been deep fried, and legumes. Foods generally regarded as snacks must contain not more than 35 percent of calories from fat, 10 percent of calories from saturated fat, 35 percent sugar by weight, and no more than calories per item.
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The degree of protection they offer against HIV and STIs is significantly better than any other single prevention method, taken in isolation, other than sexual abstinence or complete mutual monogamy between two people who have tested negative for HIV. Despite this, the use and promotion of condoms continue to be targets for controversy and criticism, and sexual abstinence and monogamy are often promoted as superior alternatives. While condoms offer useful and vital protection, they have also become associated with promiscuity and infidelity.
Museveni later complained of being misunderstood and signed an article in The Lancet saying that condoms formed a valuable part of HIV prevention.
In moderate doses caffeine has mainly positive effects for most people. But it increases production of cortisol, which can lead to health problems including anxiety, weight gain and heart disease.
Kidney disease Some experts believe that a number of factors besides HIV can significantly contribute to these problems. People with HIV take ARVs, some of which can contribute to bone loss, kidney damage, fat redistribution and elevated cholesterol and triglycerides. People with HIV are far more likely than the general population to be coinfected with either hep B or hep C—or sometimes all three—and these increase the risk of liver cancer, liver failure, kidney disease and diabetes.
People with HIV are many times more likely to be chronically infected with human papillomavirus HPV , which causes cervical and anal cancer as well as cancers of the head, neck and throat. People with HIV are up to three times as likely to smoke tobacco, which is one of the leading causes of heart attacks, strokes, lung cancer and emphysema. HIV can directly infect key tissues in the bone, brain, circulatory system and elsewhere, and it can cause inflammation-related damage to the heart, nervous system, liver and kidneys.
These factors likely play major roles in the increased rates of aging-related diseases and conditions seen in people with HIV. Researchers are working to try to understand how quickly inflammation and immunosenescence occur in people with HIV after they become infected. There is evidence that it begins to happen very soon after a person contracts HIV, but that good control of the virus either because a person naturally controls HIV well or because he or she takes ARV therapy may slow this process down somewhat.
Can you get HIV from oral sex? Americans really want to know their HIV risk during fellatio—even more so than during anal sex. Sure, you can Google the subject, but the results may further confuse and scare you. Numbers seem less abstract, more specific.
An acronym is an abbreviation coined from the initial letter of each successive word in a term or phrase. In general, an acronym made up solely from the first letter of the major words in the expanded form is rendered in all capital letters (NATO from North Atlantic Treaty Organization; an exception would be ASEAN for Association of Southeast Asian Nations).
Many species are infected by lentiviruses, which are characteristically responsible for long-duration illnesses with a long incubation period. Upon entry into the target cell, the viral RNA genome is converted reverse transcribed into double-stranded DNA by a virally encoded enzyme, reverse transcriptase , that is transported along with the viral genome in the virus particle.
The resulting viral DNA is then imported into the cell nucleus and integrated into the cellular DNA by a virally encoded enzyme, integrase , and host co-factors. Alternatively, the integrated viral DNA may be transcribed , producing new RNA genomes and viral proteins, using host cell resources, that are packaged and released from the cell as new virus particles that will begin the replication cycle anew. Two types of HIV have been characterized: A matrix composed of the viral protein p17 surrounds the capsid ensuring the integrity of the virion particle.
The viral envelope contains proteins from the host cell and relatively few copies of the HIV Envelope protein,  which consists of a cap made of three molecules known as glycoprotein gp , and a stem consisting of three gp41 molecules that anchor the structure into the viral envelope. The density is high as the glycans shield the underlying viral protein from neutralisation by antibodies.
Former inmates decry forced circumcision by Ronnie Layoo Gulu- Former inmates at Gulu Main Prison have accused the authorities of circumcising them against their will. The inmates say the prison wardens force them to get circumcised, saying the move is to enhance good sanitation and health living. Speaking to the Daily Monitor recently, Mr Richard Okello, 22, who was remanded in the prison for alleged assault for three months, said the prison warders forced him to get circumcised.
He said he was exposed to infection since they did not provide him treatment.
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Anafranil clomipramine Side effects of cyclic antidepressants include: These cyclic antidepressant medications vary primarily by side effects. Some are more sedative than others-that is, they make you feel sleepy or fall asleep. This can be useful if you are suffering from insomnia or troubling if it interferes with your daily activities. These drugs have what are referred to as anticholinergic side effects, some drugs more than others.
These side effects include dry mouth, constipation, blurred near vision, and difficulty in urinating. Dry mouth is the most frequent symptom. Sucking on hard candies, especially citrus-flavored ones preferably sugar-free ones for the sake of your teeth can alleviate it. Sometimes cyclic antidepressants cause a drop in blood pressure associated with change in posture that can lead to fainting or dizziness.
This is referred to as orthostatic hypotension. Standing up slowly after being in a prone or squatting position can help prevent this. Norpramin desipramine and Tofranil imipramine are two of the most widely prescribed cyclic antidepressants. Norpramin is one of the least sedating of the cyclic antidepressants and causes fewer anticholinergic side effects dry mouth, etc.
Usage Factbook photos – obtained from a variety of sources – are in the public domain and are copyright free. It is also one of three volcanic peaks in Mexico – together with Popocatepetl and Iztaccihuatl – that retain summit glaciers. The last recorded eruption took place in ; while the volcano is considered dormant at present, geologists continue to investigate the potential hazards associated with a renewal of activity.
Shadows accentuate several features of the Pico de Orizaba stratovolcano visible in this photograph from the International Space Station. The meter-deep summit crater is clearly visible against surrounding ice and snow cover at center.
Healthy Schools Database. Mandates: These topics are addressed in more than a dozen California laws. Education Code – (), known as the California Comprehensive Sexual Health and HIV/AIDS Prevention Education Act,” seeks to (1) provide a pupil with the knowledge and skills necessary to protect his or her sexual and reproductive health from unintended pregnancy and sexually.
February 8, February 7, With 2, athletes from 92 countries, the Winter Olympics set a record for the largest number of competitors ever at the storied event. The PyeongChang Games also set another record that has nothing to do with sports — more free condoms at the Olympics will be doled out at Olympic Village and other venues at the competition than any other previous Winter Olympics. Olympic athletes received , condoms — the most of any previous Winter Olympics — this year in PyeongChang.
The Benneton condom advertisement at the Olympics in Rio de Janeiro. A representative from the Olympics did not respond immediately to a request for comment.
Do condoms work?
Although the epidemic is in decline, prevalence remain high among key affected groups. Thailand hopes to be one of the first countries to end AIDS by However, to achieve this significantly more young people and key affected populations need to be reached. Those most affected are men who have sex with men, sex workers, transgender people and people who inject drugs. Spouses of these populations, migrants and prisoners are also more vulnerable to HIV than others.
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Social trends Since the s, Internet dating has become more popular with smartphones. The stigma associated with online dating dropped over the years and people view online dating more positively. Further, during this period, the usage among to year-olds tripled, while that among to year-olds doubled. Online introduction services In , a variation of the online dating model emerged in the form of introduction sites, where members have to search and contact other members, who introduce them to other members whom they deem compatible.
Introduction sites differ from the traditional online dating model, and attracted a large number of users and significant investor interest. Such sites earn revenue from a mix of advertising and sale of additional options. This model also allows users to switch between free and paying status at will, with sites accepting a variety of online currencies and payment options.
Why Winter Olympic Athletes Are Getting More Condoms Than Ever Before
Links Introduction Many adolescents engage in sexual intercourse with multiple partners and without condoms. Among sexually experienced people, adolescents aged 15 to 19 years have some of the highest reported rates of STDs. In addition, particular groups of adolescents eg, males who have sex with males, injection drug users, and teens who have sex for drugs engage in even greater risk-taking behavior. Some of these programs have been effective at changing behavior, while others have not.
This chapter presents data on adolescent sexual risk-taking behavior, reviews the studies measuring the impact of adolescent prevention programs, and identifies common characteristics of programs that have been effective in reducing sexual risk-taking behavior.
KEY POINTS. More than one million people are living with HIV in the United States of America (USA); one in seven are unaware of their status. The HIV epidemic is driven by sexual contact and is heavily concentrated among certain key populations, in particular gay .
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Global information and education on HIV and AIDS
The HIV epidemic is driven by sexual contact and is heavily concentrated among certain key populations, in particular gay men and other men who have sex with men. African Americans are worse affected across all key population groups. Despite condoms being widely available, their use is falling, even among people who are at heightened risk of acquiring HIV.
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Although the underlying ideas and messages in this article remain relevant, much HIV prevention research has been published since , notably about there being effectively no risk of transmitting the virus if you are HIV positive and undetectable a. Can you get HIV from oral sex? Americans really want to know their HIV risk during fellatio—even more so than during anal sex.
Sure, you can Google the subject, but the results may further confuse and scare you. Numbers seem less abstract, more specific. But do they give us a better understanding of HIV risk and sexual health? Probabilities of HIV transmission per exposure to the virus are usually expressed in percentages or as odds see chart at the end of this article. For example, the average risk of contracting HIV through sharing a needle one time with an HIV-positive drug user is 0.
The risk from giving a blowjob to an HIV-positive man not on treatment is at most 1 in 2, or 0. The risk of contracting HIV during vaginal penetration, for a woman in the United States, is 1 per 1, exposures or 0. As for anal sex, the most risky sex act in terms of HIV transmission, if an HIV-negative top—the insertive partner—and an HIV-positive bottom have unprotected sex, the chances of the top contracting the virus from a single encounter are 1 in or 0.
Specifically, it is 1. If the guy pulls out before ejaculation, then the odds are 1 out of
HIV and Depression
Many species are infected by lentiviruses, which are characteristically responsible for long-duration illnesses with a long incubation period. Upon entry into the target cell, the viral RNA genome is converted reverse transcribed into double-stranded DNA by a virally encoded enzyme, reverse transcriptase , that is transported along with the viral genome in the virus particle. The resulting viral DNA is then imported into the cell nucleus and integrated into the cellular DNA by a virally encoded enzyme, integrase , and host co-factors.
Alternatively, the integrated viral DNA may be transcribed , producing new RNA genomes and viral proteins, using host cell resources, that are packaged and released from the cell as new virus particles that will begin the replication cycle anew. Two types of HIV have been characterized: A matrix composed of the viral protein p17 surrounds the capsid ensuring the integrity of the virion particle.
SABC (South Africa) December 27, Burnt initiates taken to hospital. Three initiates who were burnt at an initiation school in Matatiele in the Eastern Cape have been taken to hospital.
Abbreviations , which includes all abbreviations and acronyms used in the Factbook, with their expansions. Acronyms An acronym is an abbreviation coined from the initial letter of each successive word in a term or phrase. In general, an acronym made up of more than the first letter of the major words in the expanded form is rendered with only an initial capital letter Comsat from Communications Satellite Corporation; an exception would be NAM from Nonaligned Movement.
Administrative divisions This entry generally gives the numbers, designatory terms, and first-order administrative divisions as approved by the US Board on Geographic Names BGN. Changes that have been reported but not yet acted on by the BGN are noted. Geographic names conform to spellings approved by the BGN with the exception of the omission of diacritical marks and special characters.
Age structure This entry provides the distribution of the population according to age. Information is included by sex and age group as follows: The age structure of a population affects a nation’s key socioeconomic issues. Countries with young populations high percentage under age 15 need to invest more in schools, while countries with older populations high percentage ages 65 and over need to invest more in the health sector.
The age structure can also be used to help predict potential political issues. For example, the rapid growth of a young adult population unable to find employment can lead to unrest. Agriculture – products This entry is an ordered listing of major crops and products starting with the most important.